The conduct antisocial personality disorder symptoms are characteristic of children and adolescents who indulge in behaviors that violate social norms.
These children and adolescents can become juvenile offenders, get involved in drugs and continue these behaviors when they grow up.
Dissocial Personality Disorder
In fact, long-term studies show that many adults with antisocial personality disorder symptoms manifest the disorder in childhood. This probability is higher if the child has the disorder and attention deficit disorder.
An important difference between the antisocial and the dissociation disorders is that the former includes the lack of remorse, in the non-dissocial.
Causes of Dissocial Personality Disorder
Studies in families, twins, and adopted children suggest that there is a genetic influence on the disorder.
However, genetic factors may be important only in the presence of certain environmental influences. Alternatively, environmental influences are only important in the presence of genetic influences.
An environmental factor is, for example, a deficiency in early and quality contact with either biological or adoptive parents.
It seems clear that a brain injury would not explain why people become psychopaths or criminals.
According to the theory of under-excitation, dissocial children and adolescents have abnormally low levels of cortical excitation
According to the daring hypothesis, dissocial children and adolescents have a higher threshold for fear than most people.
Psychological and social dimensions
Although little is known about which environmental factors play a direct role in the origin of this disorder.
Testing for adoption studies strongly suggests that shared environmental factors are important.
Children with dissocial disorders usually come from households with inconsistent paternal discipline. However, it is not known whether this lack of discipline directly generates the disorder. It is possible that parents have a genetic vulnerability.
Influences of development
The forms that acquire the dissocial behaviors of the children and adolescents change as they grow.
Clinical knowledge and empirical reports suggest that antisocial behavior rates decline after 40 years of age.
The comprehensive model supports an abbreviated version of a complex system.
According to this model, biological, psychological and cultural factors contribute to dysocial disorders. For example:
- Genetic inheritance: susceptibility to weak inhibition systems and hyperactive reward systems.
- Cultural: family under stress from a divorce or substance abuse problem. There may be a pattern of family interaction that promotes the child’s antisocial behavior
Diagnosis according to DSM-IV
- A) A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others or age-specific social norms, manifested by the presence of three (or more) of the following criteria during the last 6 months:
Aggression to people and animals
- He often bluffs, threatens, or intimidates others.
- Often starts physical fights.
- You have used a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to other people.
- He has manifested physical cruelty to people.
- He has manifested physical cruelty to animals.
- He has stolen from the victim.
- He’s forced someone into a sexual activity.
Destruction of property
- It has deliberately caused fires with the intention of causing serious damage.
- It has deliberately destroyed other people’s property.
Fraudulence or Theft
- Has violated another person’s house or car.
- He often lies to get goods or favors or to avoid obligations.
- He has stolen objects of some value without confrontation with the victim.
Serious violations of standards
- He often stays away from home at night despite his father’s prohibitions, initiating this behavior before the age of 13.
- She has run away from home during the night at least twice, living in her parents’ home or in a foster home.
- He usually does bullfights in the school, initiating this practice before the 13 years of age.
- B) Dissocial disorder causes clinically significant deterioration of social, academic or work activity.
- C) If the individual is 18 years or older, does not meet criteria of antisocial personality disorder.
Type based on age:
- Childhood onset type: At least one of the characteristics criteria is initiated before the age of 10 years.
- Type of adolescent onset: Absence of any characteristic criteria before 10 years of age.
- Mild: Few or no behavior problems exceed those required to establish the diagnosis, and behavioral problems alone cause minimal damage to others.
- Moderate: The number of behavior problems and their effect on other people are intermediate between mild and severe.
- Severe: Several behavior problems exceed those required to establish the diagnosis, or behavior problems cause considerable damage to others.
DSM III describes three possible groups of the disorder:
- Group type: Behavioral disorders are more often manifested as group activity with peers.
- Aggressive solitary type: Behavioral disorders manifest themselves without having to be accompanied by a group of peers.
- Undifferentiated type: Behavior disorders are manifested both accompanied with pairs as solitary.
People with this disorder rarely recognize the need for treatment.
The most common treatment strategy for children is the preparation and training of parents.
They are taught to recognize early behavioral problems and to use rewards and privileges to reduce problematic behaviors and foster social behaviors.
In some programs, these problems are addressed earlier to avoid difficulties; Preschool programs combine parenting with good educational skills with a wide variety of supports for families with social and economic difficulties.
One obstacle to prevention is the difficulty of finding good methods to identify children at risk of developing the disorder.
The diagnosis and treatment of co morbid states is also a priority; Depression is often associated with dissocial disorder.