What is the difference between extroverts and introverts?

Extroverts and introverts why do some people enjoy parties, talking in public and meeting people while others abhor these social situations?

According to the Model of the 5 Factors of Personality, there are fundamental differences between people whose most predominant feature is introversion and those who are more extroverted.

Extroverts and introverts

It was probably Carl Jung in 1923, who first wrote about introversion and extroversion. He suggested that everyone has an extrovert and an introverted dimension, although one is more predominant than the other. This theory is based on the fact that people’s behavior varies depending on the different situations.

In the model of the 5 Personality Factors, the feature of extraversion influences much of the behavior of individuals. Why do people differ in this dimension? There is a very interesting theory proposed by the psychologist Gray in 1970 that deals with the neurological factors that seem to contribute to this dimension of the personality.

Gray found a relationship between neurological factors and extraversion. The main difference between extroverts and introverts is that the former are less susceptible to “fear” in social situations; Do not anticipate as many negative events as frustration, pain or failures.

Because they perceive no danger in social situations, extraverts are usually more impulsive. They are not sensitive to potential situations of humiliation

Neurological differences between introverts and extroverts

Gray suggests that the brain structures mediating the ability to anticipate negative events are the mid septal nucleus, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex. The hypothesis is that this area is different in extraverted people.

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In one experiment, rats were given a drug that decreased the activation of such areas. After the injection, the emotional responses to frustration and avoidance decreased considerably.

Other studies have shown that people who have injuries to the frontal parts of the brain , obtain worse results in tasks of  passive avoidance; It appears that the frontal regions of the brain play an important role in inhibitory processes such as reducing impulsivity .

In addition, lesions in monkeys in the septal area produce extraverted behaviors. Thus it appears that there are three brain regions related to extraverted behavior: mid septal nucleus, hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex.

Another important finding is from the scientist Funder in 2010; That introverts respond more to stimuli than introverts. This makes sense given the avoidant behavior of the introverts, due to an overstimulation of the nervous system.