It is estimated that the human brain has a number of about 86 billion neurons. It is a figure that was estimated in a scientific research of 2009 in which the scientists used a new methodology. The number is close to 200-400 billion stars in the Milky Way, but it is not the same.
How many neurons in human being body
Very brief explanation of the functioning of neurons
The neuron is composed of three main parts: the soma, the dendrites (usually several) and the axon.
All electro-chemical messages cause thousands of neurons to activate at the same time and transmit the message to neighboring neurons. This connection occurs between the axon of a neuron with the dendrites of another and is called a synapse.
Each neuron communicates in this way with hundreds of neurons receiving electrical charges at a rate of 0.001 seconds, which can occur up to 500 times per second. The most curious thing is that the number of discharges and the value of each one constitute the language of the neurons.
The brain of a newborn has more than a hundred billion neurons, many more than it really needs. However you still lack dendrites that you will have to develop in the future and which ones will be the first reason for weight gain.
In the first years of growth, there is a growth of axons and dendrites and the synapses occur, especially in the cerebral cortex.
In the first 2 years of life, up to 15,000 new neural connections can be formed and 100 trillion synapses are reached.
Later, there is a process of pruning by which the neurons that are not used and the dendrites that do not connect atrophy and die.
Throughout life, neurons continue to form and die, and new synaptic connections are made, but the speed is not the same as just after birth.
The development of neurons and their connections does not depend only on genetics and the pre-established; also depends on its use. That is to say, if there are no experiences that activate the neurons and their connections, they will be lost.
However, the death of some neurons may benefit the development of others and it is believed that the child’s development is partly due to this process. For example, in fragile X syndrome, children who have it have dense and very long dendrites, in which the loss process (also called neural pruning) has not occurred.
Can neurons regenerate?
Yes, recent research has shown that damaged areas of the brain can be regenerated from cells that become neurons.
Also, the adult human brain can generate new neurons and of course connections.
Feeding, physical exercise, and mental exercise (for example with cognitive stimulation) are critical to maintaining a healthy brain.
Processes that lead to the death of neurons
The brain loses about 10000 neurons a day and if you have a bad diet, alcohol or other drugs are abused, the number is much higher.
- In drunkenness can lose up to 1000000 neurons.
- Stress prevents the new formation of neurons and even kills them.
- Hypertension can lead to the death of neurons.
- Alcohol and smoking tobacco or marijuana also causes the death of neurons.
- The drugs.
- The brain constitutes 2% of the body’s weight, although it consumes 20% of the energy.
- The brain receives 36 liters of blood every hour, 891 liters per day.
- If the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, consciousness is lost in a few seconds.
- The brain needs 8-12 glasses of water for proper function.
- The cell body of the neuron has movement capacity, but most remain stable (Extend the axons).
Number of neurons in other animals
- Sea sponge – 0.
- Medusa – 800.
- Leech – 10,000.
- Caracol – 10,000.
- Fruit fly – 100,000.
- Lobster – 100,000.
- Ant – 250,000.
- Cockroach – 100,000.
- Rana – 16,000,000.
- Mouse – 71,000,000.
- Dog – 160,000,000.
- Rat – 200,000,000.
- Cat – 300,000,000.
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