Problem-Based Learning Throughout our life there are facts and circumstances that make difficult or even impossible the achievement of various objectives that we want to achieve.
Faced with this series of difficulties we experience we cannot avoid the emergence of various questions whose solution involves a personal construction. When confronted with the problem, we need to find, inform, inquire, analyze, elaborate strategies and procedures, compare and put into practice the resources available to us to obtain a solution.
We can say that before these questions we activate a series of processes and procedures whose purpose is to obtain solutions that bring us closer to what we want to obtain. In other words, in the path that goes from the problems until we solve them, we develop a series of learning. This is the dynamics on which problem-based learning is based.
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Problem-based learning is a methodology that encourages the search for answers to a question or solutions to a problem, so that its correct resolution involves the development of new competencies. From the point of view of the teacher, it means working cooperatively with his students in the construction of new knowledge based on questions that he himself poses. The teacher happens
To have a role of facilitator, tutor, guide, co-learner, advisor, instead of the role of expert or formal authority that assumes in a traditional learning process.
In a context where questions are not naturally raised, unanswered or not encouraged, meaningful learning can hardly emerge. The teacher must bring the contents closer to the student’s reality and establish a bridge between the solutions to the problems that arise in class (within a given subject) and their equivalents in other aspects of life. This approach is usually done through the examples and implementation of the knowledge acquired.
The project – based learning is a strategy in which, unlike the previous one , students collect and analyze information, plan, implement , report, present and evaluate their projects ( planning a series of actions interrelated and coordinated for obtaining a end), often chosen by themselves.
Usually the projects include the design and development of a product, service, brand, process, function or operation that can be seen or used by third parties (unlike the previous one in which only focused on the solution and its process). It builds on the individual strengths of each of them and allows them to explore their areas of interest and their abilities within the framework of the subject matter.
We can consider that in project-based learning students are faced with diverse problems, and therefore employ the methodology of problem-based learning, so that the latter would also be contained in the first.