The inclusive education are rights that safeguard the person to be educated in the same equal than others.
There have been numerous occasions in which a certain similarity has been established between the curtain of the cinema and the normal social parameters, that is, our way of looking is the image that we attribute to things (Souza, 2006).
However, society must be clear that all human beings have the right to education, to be educated and included in the Educational System, governed by democracy. Since this implies developing the process of socialization in the person, advocating the union of values, norms and the bases that guide education itself (Chisvert et al., 2013).
It is the Spanish Constitution itself that states these bases, but we must bear in mind that not always, although necessary, are these rights fulfilled, of which the laws outlined speak.
What is Inclusive Education
And is that according to Chisvert et al. (2013), existing social inequality begins when a gap between languages and communication opens up. It is at that moment when the inequality that inhabits the person with respect to the place is observed. Something that society quickly becomes aware of, and the context closest to the student.
Therefore, not only the family is a relevant factor in this process of inclusion, before integration, but the legislation is paramount. Being the school itself the network that links this process of socialization, thanks to the contribution of the curriculum.
In short, it is a goal to achieve in our educational institutions, since it will be a model for the rest of the students. Being, without a doubt, the visual and tangible result of the democratic education that should shine in the classrooms of our country (Casanova and Rodríguez, 2009).
The evolution of inclusive education
Inclusive education has evolved over time, betting on an impulse in the education system. A change that has gone in the way that leads to a school for all, where from these differences coexists obtaining lessons and excellent experiences (Marchesi, 2000, in Moriña, 2004).
Inclusive education has evolved towards a new conceptualization of attention to diversity, and of education in general.
The origin of inclusive education goes back to the ideology that is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is at this moment where it is established that the state has the obligation to ensure an equal education to all of society, regardless of the characteristics that each student presents individually.
However, it is not until 1990, in UNESCO, in Jomtien (Thailand), where the inclusive movement itself begins. And later, in a new conference of UNESCO, in Salamanca, the fundamental pillars are established, including inclusive education as an educational policy (Moriña, 2004).
Currently, integration has not been consolidated as a positive thing to include our students. There are professionals who comment on the possibility of obtaining benefits if these people are included in the classrooms of the Spanish educational system. However, society shows resistance and does not think about the positive side of the issue (Casanova and Rodríguez, Coords, 2009).
We can analyze the advantages it can bring to society in this new integrated model, based on:
- The skills that the person will acquire and demonstrate.
- The execution of adequate methods to evaluate the students, according to their possibilities, to develop their capacities.
- Remove the label that designates our students.
- It trains professionals with a level of advanced knowledge in the field.
Therefore, if we promote the integration of students and carry out a heterogeneous grouping, the teaching-learning process is favored, since diversity is taken into account above all (Casanova and Rodríguez, et al., 2009 ).
The social perception of inclusive education
At present, there is ignorance in society about the various difficulties that some individuals encounter. Access or not to certain events and infrastructures, gives way to the implication related to the Integration of the person.
From here, we have taken as an example Del Campo and Santos (2007), who reflect from our field, the sense of sight, what can be relevant to the adaptation of the environment to the person who requires it.
And, once again, Integration is proposed as a meeting point in which two essential perspectives of educational, cultural and social inclusion converge (p.5).
In this way, it is proposed to go further by covering the needs to be developed in organizations, with initiatives that promote the inclusion of society and the access of all people to all places and manifestations.
It is the task of all institutions and their professionals to raise awareness among the population and society itself.
Inclusive education in educational development
In order to analyze inclusive education within the educational sphere, we must refer to the term diversity itself.
Arnáiz (2003), in Chisvert et al. (2013), alludes to the concept of diversity as that set of peculiarities that show that human beings turn out to be different from each other.
And it is Echeita (2009), in Chisvert et al. (2013), who makes an annotation adding that there is a doubt regarding the inequalities of the students, since this difference turns out to be broader when we refer to those that are cataloged as disabled, getting to establish discussions and few agreements with respect to to the contradiction that the system marks for these individuals.
Therefore, we must emphasize that it is the least necessary to consider the change in values and attitudes, starting from the teachers themselves.
This is due to the fact that families enroll their children in the classrooms of the Spanish educational system, with the wish that their descendants receive a complete education, where the acquisition of skills and knowledge is given that make people critical, reflective, educated. and happy (Ledesma in Chisvert, Ros and Horcas, 2013).
However, not all families can enjoy this right in full conditions. An example of this is found in immigrants, according to Chisvert et al. (2013), this group is one of those named as socially marginalized and for several years they have been linked to pejorative and discriminatory concepts, such as exclusion and poverty.
Undoubtedly, the phenomenon of migration that takes place in Spain is characterized by the speed and fluidity with which it is carried out. At the same rhythm and lightness they begin to introduce the children in the classrooms, this fact having a relevant role, since this implies that the process of socialization of these students who have just started a new life away from their place of origin takes place.
This example brings us closer to integration from the importance of introducing these students into our classrooms. It is the moment in which education takes the reins establishing itself as a fundamental pillar to reduce inequality and thus promote a tolerant and united society.
However, we must not leave aside that the guilt of the problem that surrounds society is correlated with politics, which originates real practices, not being excellent since they in turn promote inequalities (Chisvert, 2013).
Tárraga and Tarín (2013), in Chisvert et al. (2013) warn of the defense so that special education ceases to be on the margins of society, where the students to whom it is linked, even though they are a low percentage of the population, remain people and must stop being named as disabled
In this way, it was decided to delve into the situation, manifesting a change of denomination and showing Inclusive School or School for all, as the source of wealth of inclusive education.
Likewise, an equal education must be achieved, at the same time as it is characterized by quality and participatory. An education that takes into account the democratic society in which it is installed, this being a tool that promotes the change of society.
How could we adopt inclusive education?
Inclusive education must be included in an educational vision and developed in all the schools of the world, not only in developed countries. In addition, within these the educational institutions must include in their regulations the bases of inclusive education to promote their identity.
However, it is neither the countries nor the institutions that value the pros and cons of the practice with regard to inclusive education.
It is the researchers themselves, in the field of educational sciences, who are responsible for arguing them. The latter value all the possibilities in regard to the subject and point out that, having so much in their favor, inclusiveness should reign in the classrooms of the educational centers.
However, we are faced with reality and daily practice, which dismantles the “brilliant” theory and the “excellent” idealist policy.
We go back to 1978, at which time the Warnock report is carried out, where the amount of educational reforms that have been carried out in Spain are taken into account, where it is signed and insists on the reality and start-up, nevertheless , the practice does not coincide with this statement, and points to the teaching work as the culprit of not making the change (Tárraga and Tarín, 2013, in Chisvert et al., 2013).
Authors such as Tárraga and Tarín (2013), in Chisvert et al. (2013), aim to respond to the problems that arise in the advancement of educational inclusion. For this reason, they point out as the main culprits the values and attitudes that have been attributed to the human being throughout its existence.
From here, the normality parameter comes to life and different groupings are distinguished between human diversity. The normal and the abnormal are therefore observed, that is, what we can truly accept as “from our surroundings” and what should not be accepted by society.
Likewise, people who show differences with respect to others are included within the abnormal parameter. This is how discrimination has reached the point that, over the years, these marginalized groups have been defined with derogatory terminologies.
For all this, there has been a clear rivalry between what is and what is not normal, rejecting and discriminating against those who are not framed in the normality parameter, including minorities, culture, values and beliefs (Gundara, 2000; et al., 2013).
Marchesi (2004), in Chisvert et al. (2013), shows all this journey as a constant process that gives of itself a continuous effort and the ability to continue towards the utopia and the dream of the modification of the structures of society, starting from the school setting and the work within the classrooms.
We must start from the educational community with which we have to work, not only with regard to teachers, but we must make reference to society as a whole. Treating diversity as an indispensable value that we must always keep in mind as a basis for our work for and by students (Chisvert et al., 2013).
The curriculum used in the institutions that govern the system, establishes different options to be adapted to the diversity of the educational institution. And it is that diversity supposes a field of investigation that still remains on the margin, due to the so diverse factors that compose it and to the results that it shows after being analyzed from a political, economic and administrative management.
That is to say, to carry out a curriculum it is necessary to take into account all the aspects that surround the recipients, therefore, the construction of this must have the participation of those who take it to reality: the teaching staff and the students (Aparisi-Romero, 2013; Chisvert et al., 2013).
At present, society in general is marked by fear and fear, restlessness and unrest.
Neither education itself can go unnoticed, including all the professionals it concerns and positioning it innumerable times as the axis of economic problems. Taking away the value of what it really is, a tool for social change, which strives for equality among the population (Aparisi-Romero, 2013, Chisvert et al., 2013).
In the words of Aparisi-Romero (2013), quoted in Chisvert et al. (2013), equality also concerns education. Which can provide possibilities without changing the condition of the person, that is, gives accessibility taking into account the social, cultural and economic characteristics of both the individual and his family.
Making reference to Freire (2001), we must refer to the range offered by education with respect to the possibilities of accessing knowledge and developing socially.
And it is that nowadays, education is receiving more economic treatment than the one that really must be given through privatization. These are obstacles that affect the population sectors that, throughout history, have been marginalized from segregation.
This call for attention implies the introduction of equality in our classrooms, using a model in which the egalitarian responds to treating diversity as a primary issue in educational institutions.
Therefore, we must bear in mind the way in which education approaches an egalitarian education, without prejudice, totally free. A school where democracy is promoted without being tied to the prejudices and stereotypes that society has created (Gimeno, 2000, Chisvert et al., 2013).
On the other hand, the importance of communication in regard to educational inclusion should not be forgotten. In Casanova and Rodríguez et al (2009), the subject of communication involves insecurities, fateful experiences and the probability of exclusion of students.
In a group there must be, of course, a relationship where they interact as a group of human beings who share a common environment.
To live is to live together, to converse, to talk with others to know who I am and who I can become without complexes or egolatrías and this can and must be done through inclusive education. Education for all and in which we all learn together to know each other, as an ideal way to reach a society in which fair and equitable coexistence constitutes a real event. (p 49)
Inclusive education opens its doors to students who need educational support. Therefore, this education turns out to be hopeful, characterized as a new outlet from which a grain of sand can be contributed (Casanova in Casanova Rodríguez et al., 2009).
That is why we must make relevant the three objectives that are offered to meet Spanish education: effectiveness, efficiency and functionality in their classrooms.
Undoubtedly, the administration has the responsibility to introduce any scholar between their lines of training. It is in these circumstances when problems occur with respect to inclusion. However, the utopia that is formulated in the school is to include, regardless of the situation or origin, students in ordinary institutions.
In addition, it must design a curriculum adapted to a current society by making improvements that allow equal access to all people (Casanova in Casanova Rodríguez et al., 2009). Therefore, the elements that make up the curriculum in the inclusive school must be taken into account.
Challenges for its achievement
Inclusivity requires initial training for teachers and the possibility of acquiring knowledge continuously and permanently. Among these lines, Casanova Rodríguez et al. (2009), indicate relevant terms such as personal commitment, innovation and current affairs.
That not necessarily, the attitude must contain the illusion and the pertinent motivation with which to acquire such training to carry out such innovation in the educational reality.
The challenge that currently arises is the problematic teacher-student, being a challenge that is given to the pedagogical knowledge (Tadesco, 2008, Casanova and Rodríguez et al., 2009).
The faculty must ensure their own continuous training since in the 21st century, not only must they be able to provide the students with the knowledge required of them, but the use of new technologies in this new one is of special relevance. teaching-learning methodology.
From there, the teacher’s knowledge is framed in knowing the diverse educational context in order to make correct adaptations to the students, which should be directed to the educational practice besides taking into account that every teacher must have the cultural knowledge regulations (Casanova and Rodríguez et al., 2009).
… the training programs of general education teachers should have a specific emphasis and a common vision with respect to cooperative work, special educational needs, support systems and individualized education. (p.107)
Far from a purely traditional teaching, we are faced with a faculty that is required to have specific competences that allow it to attend to diversity in all its splendor.
It is diversity understood as cognitive, cultural and social differences of students, who contemplate innovation and the use of new technologies.
As we have mentioned before, the bilingual teacher’s learning, the use of a booming emotional intelligence and the conflictive resolution through dialogue are, in short, the profile demanded in a faculty body trained to adapt to the new ones. challenges that society provides (González, 2008 in Casanova and Rodríguez et al., 2009).
Index, a scientific look towards inclusive education
Understanding inclusive education involves a review of the wide literature, since it is an issue that is attractive to study and that many professionals have had the pleasure of cataloging among their most famous works.
One of these most relevant arguments is Index for inclusion, which has the mission of transmitting the necessary techniques to work on inclusion, advocating the development of participation and the promotion of student learning throughout the educational community.
To obtain the most relevant information of the document, we have deepened in the search of interpretations and translations referring to it. Sandoval et al. (2002), does not intend to pass Index by dedicating an exhaustive vision to the ideals that one day its authors were raised.
In terms of the studies carried out on the guide, it is convenient to highlight the term barriers for learning, establishing a certain similarity with special educational needs.
Index not only provides a bibliographic vision, but also chooses to show indicators and ideal questions to investigate individuality, without establishing a generality that prevents obtaining good results with respect to the practice and the reality of each institution.
The document addresses a distribution of three fundamental pillars. In a first section, it reviews the suitable bibliography and according to the subject; in the second part, the structure that the document gives us is observed; and finally, in the third part, the way in which inclusive education could be put into practice is explained (Sandoval et al, 2002).